# Modular Arithmetic

Modular arithmetic is a notation and set of mathematics that were first introduced by Carl Friedrich Gauss. 🙂

The major insight is that equations can fruitfully be analyzed from the perspective of remainders. Standard equations use the ‘=’ sign. Modular arithmetic uses the ‘‘ sign. Two values that are ‘≡’ to each other are said to be congruent relative the modulus. In the case below, the modulus is 3.  🙂

Here’s an example of a modular equation:

7 ≡ 1 (mod 3).

By definition, this means that 3 divides 7 – 1.

Definition 1: a ≡ b (mod c) if and only if c divides a – b.

This definition tells us the following is true:

7 ≡ 1 ≡ 10 ≡ -2 (mod 3).

Now, one of the most interesting things about ‘≡’ is that it follows many of the same relations as ‘=’ .  🙂 🙂

Notice 1: For any value a,b,c,d,n where a ≡ b (mod n) and c ≡ d (mod n):  🙂

(a) a + c ≡ b + d (mod n)
Proof :  We know that n divides (a + c) – (b + d) since this is equal to: (a -b) + (c – d).

(b) a – c ≡ b – d (mod n)
Proof : We know that n divides (a – c) – (b – d) since this is equal to: (a – b) – (c – d).

(c) ac ≡ bd (mod n)
Proof : We know that n divides ac – bd since this is equal to : c(a – b) + b(c – d).

(Q.E.D)

Notice  2: If a ≡ b (mod n) then:

(a) a + c ≡ b + c (mod n)
Proof : We know (a) since n divides a + c – (b + c) = a – b.

(b) a – c ≡ b – c (mod n)
Proof : We know (b) since n divides a – c – (b – c) = a – b.

(c) ac ≡ bc (mod n)
Proof: We know (c) since n divides ac – bc = c(a – b)

(Q.E.D)

Corrolary 2.1: a ≡ d (mod n), b ≡ e (mod n), c ≡ f (mod n), then:
a + b + c ≡ d + e + f  mod n

(1) We know that a + b ≡ d + e from above.
(2) We therefore know that (a + b) + c ≡ (d + e) + f.

(Q.E.D)

Notice  3: a + b + c ≡ 0, a ≡ 0 (mod p), then b + c ≡ 0 (mod p).

(1) a + b + c ≡ 0 (mod p) [Definition of ≡ ]

(2) b ≡ c (mod p) → a + b ≡ a + c (mod p) [See above]

(3) So, 0 ≡ a + b + c ≡ 0 + b + c ≡ b + c (mod p).

(Q.E.D)

I will cover modular arithmetic in depth 🙂 🙂
Today you must we wondering about its application ..
But after whole course You will surely love this topic
Thank you 🙂 🙂

If any doubts , then dont hesitate in asking Your doubts 🙂 🙂
I will surely love to solve your doubts

I am a young student who loves math . I like number theory and inequalities part the most , and preparing for Math Olympiads :)

Posted on Tuesday,May 29, 2012, in Modular Arithmetic and tagged , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 6 Comments.

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2. keshushivang

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